The 49-year-old, who recently stepped down as head coach of English County side Kent after four years in charge, has replaced controversial Englishman Richard Pybus, who did not seek a renewal of his contract, reports CMC.
The Jamaican, who will be based in Antigua, officially started his new role on Tuesday on a three-year contract and said he was keen to undertake his duties.
"I am very excited to be directly involved in Caribbean cricket once again, and I look forward to working with all those committed to moving the game forward in the West Indies," he said afer assuming charge.
Adams, a gritty left-hander during his playing career, represented the West Indies in 54 Tests between 1992 and 2001, scoring 3,012 runs at an average of 41 with six centuries. He led the side in 15 Tests, winning four, losing eight and drawing three.
Following his retirement, Adams managed the West Indies Under-19s, headed up the international players association (FICA), before overseeing Jamaica's cricket programme as technical director.
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According to the WICB, Adams will "oversee and manage all cricket matters, to include development of all teams, all coaching and cricket education and other technical programmes".